Country Profile

Poland Country Profile


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Country Profile

Background:
 
Poland's history as a state begins near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in central and eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over ten million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

Country name:
 
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
 

Government type:

republic
 

Capital:

name: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 

Administrative divisions:

16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
 

Independence:

11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
 

National holiday:

Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
 

Constitution:

several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997; amended 2006, 2009 (2013)
 

Legal system:

civil law system; changes gradually being introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts, but rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
 

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (since 6 August 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 16 November 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Janusz PIECHOCINSKI (since 6 December 2012) and Elzbieta BIENKOWSKA (since 27 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 June and 4 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI 53%, Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI 47%
 

Legislative branch:

bicameral legislature consists of an upper house, the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms), and a lower house, the Sejm (460 seats; members elected under a complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); the designation of National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly
elections: Senate - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015); Sejm - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015)
election results and current seat distribution: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PO 63, PiS 29, PSL 2, SP 2, independents 4; as of 25 January 2014 - PO 62, PiS 30, PSL 2, SP 2, independents 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PO 39.2%, PiS 29.9%, RP 10%, PSL 8.4%, SLD 8.2%, other 4.3%; seats by party - PO 206, PiS 137, RP 43, PSL 28, SLD 25, SP 19, independent 1, German minority 1; as of 25 January 2014 - PO 203, PiS 136, TR 36, PSL 33, SLD 26, SP 17, independent 8, German Minority 1
note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
 

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, normally at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
 

Political parties and leaders:

Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK, chairman; Rafal GRUPINSKI, parliamentary caucus leader]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Leszek MILLER, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Democratic Party or PD [Andrzej CELINSKI, chairman]
Democratic Party or SD [Pawel PISKORSKI, chairman]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Mariusz BLASZCZAK, parliamentary caucus leader]
League of Polish Families or LPR [Witold BALAZAK, chairman]
Poland Comes First or PJN [Pawel KOWAL, chairperson]
Poland Together or PR [Jaroslaw GOWIN, chairman]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Janusz PIECHOCINSKI, chairman; Jan BURY, parliamentary caucus leader]
Social Democratic Party of Poland or SDPL [Wojciech FILEMONOWICZ, chairman]
Union of Labor or UP [Waldemar WITKOWSKI, chairman]
United Poland or SP [Zbigniew ZIOBRO, chairperson; Arkadiusz MULARCZYK, parliamentary caucus leader]
Your Movement or TR [Janusz PALIKOT, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader] (formerly Palikot's Your Movement)
 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]
Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union 'Solidarity' [Piotr DUDA]
 

International organization participation:

Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Ryszard SCHNEPF (since 28 September 2012)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
 

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen MULL (since 24 October 2012)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
 

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
 

National symbol(s):

white eagle
 

National anthem:

name: 'Mazurek Dabrowskiego' (Dabrowski's Mazurka)


lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as 'Jeszcze Polska nie zginela' (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied

Economy - overview:
 
Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization since 1990 and Poland's economy was the only one in the EU to avoid a recession through the 2008-09 economic downturn. Although EU membership and access to EU structural funds have provided a major boost to the economy since 2004, GDP per capita remains significantly below the EU average while unemployment continues to exceed the EU average. The government of Prime Minister Donald TUSK steered the Polish economy through the economic downturn by skillfully managing public finances and adopting controversial pension and tax reforms to further shore up public finances. While the Polish economy has performed well over the past five years, growth slowed in 2012 and 2013, in part due to the ongoing economic difficulties in the euro zone. Short-term, the key policy challenge will be to consolidate debt and spending without stifling economic growth. Over the longer term, Poland's economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system.
 

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$814 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$803.3 billion (2012 est.)
$788.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

GDP (official exchange rate):

$513.9 billion (2013 est.)
 

GDP - real growth rate:

1.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
1.9% (2012 est.)
4.5% (2011 est.)
 

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$21,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$20,800 (2012 est.)
$20,500 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
 

Gross national saving:

16.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
17.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
16.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 61.5%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 18.3%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 46.7%
imports of goods and services: -44.7%
(2013 est.)
 

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 4%
industry: 33.3%
services: 62.7% (2013 est.)
 

Agriculture - products:

potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
 

Industries:

machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
 

Industrial production growth rate:

5.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Labor force:

18.22 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 30.2%
services: 57% (2010)
 

Unemployment rate:

10.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
10.1% (2012 est.)
 

Population below poverty line:

10.6% (2008 est.)
 

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2009 est.)
 

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

34.1 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 95
31.6 (1998)
 

Budget:

revenues: $92.5 billion
expenditures: $92.47 billion (2013 est.)
 

Taxes and other revenues:

18% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

0% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
 

Public debt:

48.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
48.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
 

Fiscal year:

calendar year
 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
3.7% (2012 est.)
 

Central bank discount rate:

4.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
4% (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6.9% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
8.73% (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of narrow money:

$162 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$156.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of broad money:

$291.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$290.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of domestic credit:

$344.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$328.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$177.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$138.2 billion (31 December 2011)
$190.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 

Current account balance:

-$11.06 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
-$18.14 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports:

$202.3 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$191 billion (2012 est.)
 

Exports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6%
 

Exports - partners:

Germany 26%, UK 7%, Czech Republic 6.5%, France 6%, Russia 5.2%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 4.6% (2012)
 

Imports:

$207.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$197.7 billion (2012 est.)
 

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
 

Imports - partners:

Germany 27.3%, Russia 12.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, China 5.4%, Italy 5.2%, Czech Republic 4.3%, France 4.2% (2012)
 

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$107.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$108.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Debt - external:

$365.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$364.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$248.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$246.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$69.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$70.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
 

Exchange rates:

zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
3.175 (2013 est.)
3.2565 (2012 est.)
3.0153 (2010 est.)
3.1214 (2009)
2.3 (2008)

Location:
 
Central Europe, east of Germany
 

Geographic coordinates:

52 00 N, 20 00 E
 

Map references:

Europe
 

Area:

total: 312,685 sq km
country comparison to the world: 70
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
 

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than New Mexico
 

Land boundaries:

total: 3,071 km
border countries: Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
 

Coastline:

440 km
 

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
 

Climate:

temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
 

Terrain:

mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
 

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
 

Natural resources:

coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
 

Land use:

arable land: 35.49%
permanent crops: 1.25%
other: 63.26% (2011)
 

Irrigated land:

1,157 sq km (2007)
 

Total renewable water resources:

61.6 cu km (2011)
 

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 11.96 cu km/yr (31%/60%/10%)
per capita: 312.3 cu m/yr (2009)
 

Natural hazards:

flooding
 

Environment - current issues:

situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
 

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
 

Geography - note:

historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Nationality:
 
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
 

Ethnic groups:

Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
 

Languages:

Polish (official) 96.2%, Polish and non-Polish 2%, non-Polish 0.5%, unspecified 1.3%
note: Kashub is recognized as a regional language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (2011 est.)
 

Religions:

Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
 

Population:

38,346,279 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
 

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.6% (male 2,876,264/female 2,716,569)
15-24 years: 11.9% (male 2,333,627/female 2,235,228)
25-54 years: 43.8% (male 8,459,153/female 8,355,491)
55-64 years: 14.7% (male 2,658,106/female 2,973,933)
65 years and over: 14.5% (male 2,224,569/female 3,513,339) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  
 

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 42.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 21.2 %
potential support ratio: 4.7 (2014 est.)
 

Median age:

total: 39.5 years
male: 37.9 years
female: 41.3 years (2014 est.)
 

Population growth rate:

-0.11% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
 

Birth rate:

9.77 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 

Death rate:

10.37 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 

Net migration rate:

-0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 

Urbanization:

urban population: 60.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 

Major urban areas - population:

WARSAW (capital) 1.723 million; Krakow 756,000 (2011)
 

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
 

Mother's mean age at first birth:

26.9 (2011 est.)
 

Maternal mortality rate:

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 175
 

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.19 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 168
male: 6.88 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
 

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.65 years
country comparison to the world: 76
male: 72.74 years
female: 80.8 years (2014 est.)
 

Total fertility rate:

1.33 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
 

Health expenditures:

6.7% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 91
 

Physicians density:

2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
 

Hospital bed density:

6.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:

improved: 
urban: 100% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 0% of population (2012 est.)
 

Sanitation facility access:

improved: 
urban: 95.7% of population
rural: 79.7% of population
total: 89.5% of population
unimproved: 
urban: 4.3% of population
rural: 20.3% of population
total: 10.5% of population (2008 est.)
 

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

27,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
 

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
 

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

25.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 56
 

Education expenditures:

5.2% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 65
 

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.6% (2011 est.)
 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2012)
 

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 26.5%
country comparison to the world: 36
male: 24.1%
female: 30% (2012)

Telephones - main lines in use:
 
6.125 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Telephones - mobile cellular:

50.84 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 27
 

Telephone system:

general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks with a fourth provider beginning operations in late 2006; coverage is generally good with some gaps in the east; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2011)
 

Broadcast media:

state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)
 

Internet country code:

.pl
 

Internet hosts:

13.265 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 12
 

Internet users:

22.452 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 19

Airports:
 
126 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 47
 

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 
21 (2013)
 

Heliports:

6 (2013)
 

Pipelines:

gas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
 

Railways:

total: 19,428 km
country comparison to the world: 15
broad gauge: 399 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 19,029 km 1.435-m gauge (11,805 km electrified) (2007)
 

Roadways:

total: 412,035 km
country comparison to the world: 15
paved: 280,719 km (includes 2,418 km of expressways)
unpaved: 131,316 km (2012)
 

Waterways:

3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 28
 

Merchant marine:

total: 9
country comparison to the world: 117
by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 106 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 34, Cyprus 24, Liberia 13, Malta 21, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 9) (2010)
 

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)

Electricity - production:
 

153.4 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 

Electricity - consumption:

155 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 

Electricity - exports:

12.64 billion kWh (2012)
country comparison to the world: 16
 

Electricity - imports:

9.803 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

33.36 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

89.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

2.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
 

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

3.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 

Crude oil - production:

27,680 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
 

Crude oil - exports:

3,615 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 

Crude oil - imports:

547,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 

Crude oil - proved reserves:

156.5 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 

Refined petroleum products - production:

636,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

576,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 

Refined petroleum products - exports:

68,970 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 

Refined petroleum products - imports:

137,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 

Natural gas - production:

6.193 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 

Natural gas - consumption:

14.38 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 

Natural gas - exports:

25.01 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 

Natural gas - imports:

37.38 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 

Natural gas - proved reserves:

92 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

307.9 million Mt (2011 est.)

Downloads

Export Statistics


# Description Chapter Amount in Rands
1 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 41 R 458,346,008.00
2 Ores, slag and ash 26 R 229,328,441.00
3 Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings 94 R 133,920,595.00
4 Salt, sulphur, earth, stone, plaster, lime and cement 25 R 127,660,605.00
5 Articles of leather, animal gut, harness, travel goods 42 R 98,228,570.00
6 Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 27 R 97,439,642.00
7 Glass and glassware 70 R 71,462,137.00
8 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc 84 R 50,643,225.00
9 Manmade staple fibres 55 R 31,271,283.00
10 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes 28 R 20,752,569.00
11 Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal 82 R 15,447,745.00
12 Electrical, electronic equipment 85 R 13,109,211.00
13 Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus 90 R 8,538,511.00
14 Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries 33 R 5,602,976.00
15 Articles of iron or steel 73 R 3,614,433.00
16 Impregnated, coated or laminated textile fabric 59 R 3,511,371.00
17 Plastics and articles thereof 39 R 3,219,775.00
18 Rubber and articles thereof 40 R 2,927,112.00
19 Miscellaneous edible preparations 21 R 2,856,173.00
20 Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes 34 R 2,498,106.00
21 Vehicles other than railway, tramway 87 R 1,700,156.00
22 Ceramic products 69 R 1,476,968.00
23 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 22 R 1,287,479.00
24 Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc 71 R 1,090,392.00
25 Organic chemicals 29 R 588,145.00
26 Miscellaneous chemical products 38 R 509,581.00
27 Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes 12 R 463,901.00
28 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 88 R 443,353.00
29 Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica, etc articles 68 R 418,194.00
30 Live trees, plants, bulbs, roots, cut flowers etc 06 R 293,956.00
31 Pharmaceutical products 30 R 263,706.00
32 Commodities not elsewhere specified 99 R 244,874.00
33 Aluminium and articles thereof 76 R 177,196.00
34 Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board 48 R 75,596.00
35 Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques 97 R 73,091.00
36 Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc 32 R 66,877.00
37 Zinc and articles thereof 79 R 64,714.00
38 Albuminoids, modified starches, glues, enzymes 35 R 64,043.00
39 Other base metals, cermets, articles thereof 81 R 51,319.00
40 Toys, games, sports requisites 95 R 28,871.00
41 Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc 49 R 22,033.00
42 Products of animal origin, nes 05 R 11,521.00
43 Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet 62 R 7,754.00
44 Coffee, tea, mate and spices 09 R 7,171.00
45 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 96 R 3,010.00
46 Live animals 01 R 3,000.00
47 Wadding, felt, nonwovens, yarns, twine, cordage, etc 56 R 370.00
48 Silk 50 R 100.00
49 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 83 R 40.00
50 Other made textile articles, sets, worn clothing etc 63 R 30.00
51 Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet 61 R 5.00
# Description Chapter Amount


# Description Chapter Amount in Rands
1 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 41 R 381,018,667.00
2 Ores, slag and ash 26 R 229,402,375.00
3 Salt, sulphur, earth, stone, plaster, lime and cement 25 R 148,640,598.00
4 Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings 94 R 125,050,180.00
5 Articles of leather, animal gut, harness, travel goods 42 R 115,965,261.00
6 Glass and glassware 70 R 56,923,075.00
7 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc 84 R 31,296,097.00
8 Manmade staple fibres 55 R 27,295,131.00
9 Plastics and articles thereof 39 R 19,357,600.00
10 Electrical, electronic equipment 85 R 17,551,769.00
11 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes 28 R 16,822,384.00
12 Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus 90 R 16,385,300.00
13 Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc 71 R 10,439,037.00
14 Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc 49 R 5,671,490.00
15 Manmade filaments 54 R 3,102,930.00
16 Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries 33 R 2,117,970.00
17 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 88 R 2,090,965.00
18 Vehicles other than railway, tramway 87 R 1,856,264.00
19 Rubber and articles thereof 40 R 1,726,696.00
20 Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes 12 R 1,716,206.00
21 Articles of iron or steel 73 R 1,452,420.00
22 Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal 82 R 1,447,714.00
23 Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica, etc articles 68 R 1,310,293.00
24 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 22 R 1,284,096.00
25 Pharmaceutical products 30 R 1,177,541.00
26 Miscellaneous chemical products 38 R 891,160.00
27 Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes 34 R 848,553.00
28 Miscellaneous edible preparations 21 R 777,695.00
29 Albuminoids, modified starches, glues, enzymes 35 R 381,310.00
30 Meat and edible meat offal 02 R 351,727.00
31 Aluminium and articles thereof 76 R 311,323.00
32 Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques 97 R 255,372.00
33 Organic chemicals 29 R 232,316.00
34 Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal 44 R 188,203.00
35 Other base metals, cermets, articles thereof 81 R 187,730.00
36 Ceramic products 69 R 178,105.00
37 Live trees, plants, bulbs, roots, cut flowers etc 06 R 156,778.00
38 Products of animal origin, nes 05 R 149,616.00
39 Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc 32 R 139,219.00
40 Toys, games, sports requisites 95 R 58,030.00
41 Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board 48 R 54,346.00
42 Other made textile articles, sets, worn clothing etc 63 R 44,657.00
43 Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 27 R 33,454.00
44 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 96 R 15,909.00
45 Special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry etc 58 R 15,846.00
46 Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof 43 R 10,890.00
47 Impregnated, coated or laminated textile fabric 59 R 10,869.00
48 Lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes 13 R 9,992.00
49 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 83 R 9,732.00
50 Coffee, tea, mate and spices 09 R 6,120.00
51 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 07 R 5,512.00
52 Wadding, felt, nonwovens, yarns, twine, cordage, etc 56 R 3,185.00
53 Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet 61 R 2,782.00
54 Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet 62 R 2,412.00
55 Sugars and sugar confectionery 17 R 363.00
56 Photographic or cinematographic goods 37 R 10.00
57 Footwear, gaiters and the like, parts thereof 64 R 2.00
58 Residues, wastes of food industry, animal fodder 23 R 1.00
# Description Chapter Amount


# Description Chapter Amount in Rands
1 Salt, sulphur, earth, stone, plaster, lime and cement 25 R 193,556,401.00
2 Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings 94 R 169,382,518.00
3 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 41 R 140,210,815.00
4 Articles of leather, animal gut, harness, travel goods 42 R 107,802,609.00
5 Ores, slag and ash 26 R 94,499,477.00
6 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc 84 R 87,005,894.00
7 Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc 71 R 60,218,909.00
8 Glass and glassware 70 R 54,108,678.00
9 Electrical, electronic equipment 85 R 43,565,699.00
10 Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus 90 R 38,474,130.00
11 Iron and steel 72 R 22,747,407.00
12 Toys, games, sports requisites 95 R 22,568,268.00
13 Vehicles other than railway, tramway 87 R 8,170,709.00
14 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes 28 R 6,855,074.00
15 Articles of iron or steel 73 R 6,303,144.00
16 Manmade staple fibres 55 R 6,278,114.00
17 Plastics and articles thereof 39 R 6,096,222.00
18 Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica, etc articles 68 R 5,129,556.00
19 Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes 12 R 2,812,644.00
20 Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal 82 R 1,521,291.00
21 Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc 49 R 1,479,464.00
22 Rubber and articles thereof 40 R 1,390,877.00
23 Miscellaneous chemical products 38 R 1,291,037.00
24 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 88 R 825,151.00
25 Pharmaceutical products 30 R 696,169.00
26 Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries 33 R 626,512.00
27 Aluminium and articles thereof 76 R 537,546.00
28 Miscellaneous edible preparations 21 R 479,221.00
29 Lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes 13 R 470,800.00
30 Other base metals, cermets, articles thereof 81 R 470,371.00
31 Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes 34 R 420,706.00
32 Coffee, tea, mate and spices 09 R 408,859.00
33 Meat and edible meat offal 02 R 367,234.00
34 Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques 97 R 284,755.00
35 Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc 32 R 132,508.00
36 Organic chemicals 29 R 118,731.00
37 Live trees, plants, bulbs, roots, cut flowers etc 06 R 105,969.00
38 Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board 48 R 104,761.00
39 Animal,vegetable fats and oils, cleavage products, etc 15 R 90,159.00
40 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 83 R 51,000.00
41 Albuminoids, modified starches, glues, enzymes 35 R 44,110.00
42 Products of animal origin, nes 05 R 40,186.00
43 Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet 62 R 33,596.00
44 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 96 R 19,771.00
45 Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof 43 R 15,714.00
46 Ceramic products 69 R 9,601.00
47 Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet 61 R 8,443.00
48 Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 27 R 825.00
49 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 22 R 100.00
50 Headgear and parts thereof 65 R 75.00
51 Manmade filaments 54 R 10.00
52 Footwear, gaiters and the like, parts thereof 64 R 10.00
# Description Chapter Amount


# Description Chapter Amount in Rands
1 Salt, sulphur, earth, stone, plaster, lime and cement 25 R 168,959,095.00
2 Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings 94 R 140,669,282.00
3 Articles of leather, animal gut, harness, travel goods 42 R 99,548,557.00
4 Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc 71 R 98,843,935.00
5 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc 84 R 78,485,522.00
6 Electrical, electronic equipment 85 R 62,772,700.00
7 Ores, slag and ash 26 R 50,580,952.00
8 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 41 R 45,172,326.00
9 Glass and glassware 70 R 35,436,188.00
10 Iron and steel 72 R 28,536,101.00
11 Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus 90 R 17,963,143.00
12 Vehicles other than railway, tramway 87 R 8,683,161.00
13 Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica, etc articles 68 R 7,513,665.00
14 Toys, games, sports requisites 95 R 4,551,192.00
15 Articles of iron or steel 73 R 4,273,802.00
16 Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes 12 R 3,830,466.00
17 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes 28 R 2,647,502.00
18 Plastics and articles thereof 39 R 2,016,790.00
19 Coffee, tea, mate and spices 09 R 1,916,361.00
20 Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 27 R 1,847,729.00
21 Rubber and articles thereof 40 R 1,026,832.00
22 Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc 49 R 954,493.00
23 Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries 33 R 940,376.00
24 Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products 19 R 826,904.00
25 Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal 82 R 466,903.00
26 Manmade staple fibres 55 R 375,473.00
27 Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc 32 R 353,783.00
28 Pharmaceutical products 30 R 348,350.00
29 Zinc and articles thereof 79 R 276,046.00
30 Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes 34 R 238,890.00
31 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 83 R 190,548.00
32 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 88 R 185,916.00
33 Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques 97 R 182,450.00
34 Products of animal origin, nes 05 R 166,960.00
35 Aluminium and articles thereof 76 R 104,291.00
36 Other base metals, cermets, articles thereof 81 R 63,806.00
37 Dairy products, eggs, honey, edible animal product nes 04 R 52,269.00
38 Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal 44 R 23,531.00
39 Miscellaneous edible preparations 21 R 12,365.00
40 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 96 R 12,204.00
41 Miscellaneous chemical products 38 R 11,239.00
42 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 22 R 10,535.00
43 Albuminoids, modified starches, glues, enzymes 35 R 9,508.00
44 Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board 48 R 6,542.00
45 Residues, wastes of food industry, animal fodder 23 R 1,604.00
46 Live animals 01 R 400.00
# Description Chapter Amount


# Description Chapter Amount in Rands
1 Salt, sulphur, earth, stone, plaster, lime and cement 25 R 161,064,311.00
2 Furniture, lighting, signs, prefabricated buildings 94 R 160,456,077.00
3 Ores, slag and ash 26 R 120,660,258.00
4 Articles of leather, animal gut, harness, travel goods 42 R 104,297,253.00
5 Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc 71 R 89,641,373.00
6 Glass and glassware 70 R 85,084,299.00
7 Iron and steel 72 R 71,909,598.00
8 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery, etc 84 R 49,064,771.00
9 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 41 R 48,251,168.00
10 Electrical, electronic equipment 85 R 20,635,614.00
11 Articles of iron or steel 73 R 9,998,091.00
12 Plastics and articles thereof 39 R 5,069,620.00
13 Essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, toileteries 33 R 5,002,185.00
14 Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica, etc articles 68 R 4,989,485.00
15 Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus 90 R 4,954,819.00
16 Vehicles other than railway, tramway 87 R 4,218,047.00
17 Coffee, tea, mate and spices 09 R 1,714,993.00
18 Oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes 12 R 1,443,356.00
19 Rubber and articles thereof 40 R 1,285,979.00
20 Toys, games, sports requisites 95 R 1,033,583.00
21 Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivs,pigments etc 32 R 675,770.00
22 Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 27 R 562,078.00
23 Miscellaneous chemical products 38 R 538,811.00
24 Edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons 08 R 438,875.00
25 Paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board 48 R 367,823.00
26 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 96 R 321,909.00
27 Works of art, collectors pieces and antiques 97 R 299,172.00
28 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes 28 R 267,337.00
29 Pharmaceutical products 30 R 261,881.00
30 Impregnated, coated or laminated textile fabric 59 R 230,905.00
31 Live trees, plants, bulbs, roots, cut flowers etc 06 R 207,354.00
32 Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, modelling pastes 34 R 199,865.00
33 Copper and articles thereof 74 R 146,199.00
34 Tools, implements, cutlery, etc of base metal 82 R 145,213.00
35 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof 88 R 131,082.00
36 Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal 44 R 59,651.00
37 Aluminium and articles thereof 76 R 49,407.00
38 Products of animal origin, nes 05 R 49,382.00
39 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 83 R 30,972.00
40 Printed books, newspapers, pictures etc 49 R 24,565.00
41 Nickel and articles thereof 75 R 23,682.00
42 Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet 62 R 21,244.00
43 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 22 R 10,326.00
44 Articles of apparel, accessories, knit or crochet 61 R 660.00
45 Animal,vegetable fats and oils, cleavage products, etc 15 R 14.00
# Description Chapter Amount
Export and Import Statistics

Export Opportunities

Ref Date Received Officials Details Nature of Enquiry
Ref Date Received Officials Details Nature of Enquiry